Using a Linux distro is a completely different thing. If you are a windows user you can see they have a drive based structure for file system. If I take an example there is a system directory called C:/windows/system32 . If you have another partition they will be D:\ , E:\ etc. All of files and folders are inside of those drives. So every file path is starting with a drive letter. But in Linux we treat all thing as directories. The directory tree is begin with '/' . We call it root of the tree.
/root & /home Actually in Linux there are three things called root. Above root of the directory tree is a one. Next we have a super user called 'root'. Also there is a special directory as /root that's owned by root user. this one is equal to home folder of root. Normal users have there own home folders in /home. If your user name is 'us3r' your home folder will be /home/us3r. I think you ma have see that in many times there is a flag called root.txt in CTF s inside /root. So if you want to get that flag you need to root the mashing. /var Hear you can find files those have a variable size. It's a common thing that htdocs folder of server is located in this directory. In early versions that was /var/www and now that's /var/www/html. Also log files are located inside this directory. (/var/logs)
thilan@bt:~$ ls / 0 dev initrd.img lib64 mnt root snap tmp vmlinuz bin etc initrd.img.old lost+found opt run srv usr vmlinuz.old boot home lib
/tmp This is the place for temporary files .Usually this folder has the write permission for all. You may find that when uploading a shell to server we first change current directory to /tmp. /sys /usr This directory comes with commands and data files .There are many sub application files in /usr/share folder.
thilan@bt:~$ ls /var backups lib lock mail run spool unicornscan cache local log opt snap tmp www
/etc This folder is responsible for holding all configuration files. If you want to tweak your Is or programs you may need to go there.For a example to change sources in apt you want to edit /etc/sourses.d
thilan@bt:~$ ls /usr bin games include lib lib64 local sbin share src var thilan@bt:~$ ls /usr/share accountsservice gvfs pev aclocal hal php7.2-common aclocal-1.16 hamster-sidejack php7.2-json adduser hashcat php7.2-mysql afl hashcat-utils php7.2-opcache aglfn help php7.2-pgsql airgeddon hexorbase php7.2-readline alsa hfsprogs php7.2-sqlite3 android-framework-res highlight pipal ant homebank pixmaps
/bin This directory contains all executable binary files required for booting the system. Commands those run in single user-mode such as ls, ping, chmod are also located hear.
thilan@bt:~$ ls /etc adduser.conf gimp menu-methods rmt adjtime glvnd mercurial rpc aliases gnome-system-tools mime.types rsyslog.conf alsa gnuradio miredo rsyslog.d alternatives groff miredo.conf samba amap group mke2fs.conf sane.d anonsurf group- modprobe.d scalpel apache2 grub.d modules screenrc apm gshadow modules-load.d securetty apparmor gshadow- mono security apparmor.d gss motd selinux apt gtk-2.0 mpv sensors3.conf arpwatch gtk-3.0 mtab sensors.d
/lib Hear you can find system libraries and kernel modules. /opt This folder can be used to hold custom program files. If you wanted to install sublime manually you may copy files to /opt/sublime.
thilan@bt:~$ ls /bin bash findmnt netstat su btrfs fsck.btrfs networkctl sync btrfsck fuser nisdomainname systemctl btrfs-find-root fusermount ntfs-3g systemd btrfs-image getfacl ntfs-3g.probe systemd-ask-password btrfs-map-logical grep ntfscat systemd-escape btrfs-select-super gunzip ntfscluster systemd-hwdb
/dev This directory Contains device related files for all hardware devices . If you are going to mount a new drive you may need this directory.
thilan@bt:~$ ls /opt car-hacking firmware-mod-kit sublime_text Teeth xplico
So I hope you got an idea about Linux directory tree. Thank you for reading. Just leave a comment if somthin is unclear or wrong. :-)
thilan@bt:~$ ls /dev agpgart kmsg serial tty20 tty47 uhid autofs log sg0 tty21 tty48 uinput block loop-control sg1 tty22 tty49 urandom bsg lp0 sg2 tty23 tty5 vcs btrfs-control mapper sg3 tty24 tty50 vcs1 bus mem sg4 tty25 tty51 vcs2 cdc-wdm0 memory_bandwidth shm tty26 tty52 vcs3 cdrom mqueue snapshot tty27 tty53 vcs4 cdrw net snd tty28 tty54 vcs5